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Students who budget their time accordingly would likely attain a higher grade. You may want to implement a behaviorism strategy called a token economy. Students are told how to earn a token, such as listening, staying on task and raising their hand. Depending on the child's age, tokens can be stars, stickers or a a punch card. When tokens accumulate, students may exchange tokens for a reward that the student chooses.

For instance, a token economy reportedly improved school climate at Stanfield Elementary in Oregon.

The Vanderbilt Kennedy Center notes that the token system can also be effective with students with autism spectrum disorder. You may find it helpful to collaborate with other teachers interested in using behaviorism to improve student performance and behavior. Many schools rely on a behavioral framework known as Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports to shape behavior in classrooms and extracurricular activities.

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Teachers target up to five behaviors to reinforce throughout the curriculum. A PBIS approach emphasizes positive reinforcement rather than harsh discipline, such as out-of-school suspension, which is strongly discouraged by the U. Department of Education. Key components of PBIS include clear communication of rules, regular routines, consistent reinforcement of targeted behaviors, social skills training and natural consequences, such as temporary loss of privileges. You can use behaviorism to increase learning and decrease distracting student behavior. Biblio is a marketplace for book collectors comprised of thousands of independent, professional booksellers, located all over the world, who list their books for sale online so that customers like you can find them!

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Your order is also backed by our In-Stock Guarantee! What makes Biblio different? Facebook Instagram Twitter. Sign In Register Help Cart. Cart items. Toggle navigation. Stock photo. Search Results Results 1 -8 of 8. On the basis of the composite scores, the participants were arranged in triplets of equal ratings and assigned at random to one of two treatment conditions or to the control group. Bandura and his team carried out many experiments and variations upon the experiments to identify the important factors and features of modelling, that is, copying the behaviour of others.

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In one set of experiments the par- ticipants were brought individually by the experimenter to the experimental room and were joined by the model. In the play area the experimenter dem- onstrated how the participant could design pictures with potato prints and picture stickers. These activities were selected since they had been established as having high interest value for the children.

After having settled the participant in one corner, the experimenter escorted the model to the opposite corner of the room that contained a small table and chair, a tinker toy set, a mallet and a 5-foot inflated Bobo doll. The experimenter explained to the model, within earshot of the participant, that these were the materials provided to play with, and after the model was seated, the experimenter left the experimental room.

2.3.2 Objectivist approaches to teaching

If the participant was to be exposed to aggression, the model would be aggressive towards the Bobo doll. With participants in the nonaggressive group, the model assembled the tinker toys in a quiet, subdued manner, totally ignoring the Bobo doll. The control group did not have this experience in the experimental room.

With participants who were to experience aggression, the model began by assembling the tinker toys but after approximately a minute had elapsed, the model turned to the Bobo doll and spent the remainder of the period being aggressive towards it. In the new game room there were aggressive and nonaggressive toys laid out for the participant to play with. Non-imitative physical and verbal aggressive responses were also scored, including punching, slapping or pushing the doll and aggressive gun play. Ratings were also made of time the participants played nonaggressively or sat quietly and did not play with any of the toys at all.

The results when analysed confirmed that exposure of participants to aggressive models increases the probability of aggressive behaviour; their scores were significantly higher than those of either the nonaggressive or control groups, which did not differ from each other. However, with respect to the male model, the differences between the nonaggressive and control groups are striking; participants exposed to the nonaggressive male model performed significantly less physical and verbal aggression, and less mallet aggression, and they were less inclined to punch the Bobo doll.

The hypoth- esis that boys are more prone than girls to imitate aggression exhibited by a model was only partially confirmed. Bandura carried out a large number of variations on the study, for example, the model was rewarded or punished in a variety of ways, the participants were rewarded for their imitations, the model was changed to be less attractive or less prestigious, and so on.

- Psychology for the Classroom: Behaviourism by John Woollard

This research revealed the imitative nature of humans and that modelling can be the source of new and modified behaviours. Studies of behaviour continue but now those studies can be enhanced through the use of sophisticated technologies. The skilled and perfected performances of athletes, sports people, airline pilots, astronauts, surgeons and analysts require particularly demanding teaching regimes. Recent research by Andrew Mattar and Paul Gribble shows that the learning of com- plex behaviours can be explained with models that relate more to those of Pavlov, Skinner and Bandura than to the more recent explanations of the constructivist and social constructivists.

Those patterns of neurons serve two purposes — they hold the memory of the visual stimulus and they also hold the precept of the physical response. For example, coordinating muscle forces to control the club finds its origins in the learner observing and then copying the actions of the teacher.

This is the neurological explanation of the value of modelling and shaping. Of course, the radical behaviourists reject such mentalistic explanations, but the modern behaviourist embraces the evidence while retaining the principle that the evidence and value of learn- ing arise from the changes in behaviour and response. They show that the effect is not based on conscious strategies but is dependent upon the implicit engagement of neural systems for movement planning and control.

One area that has utilised behaviour modification and the use of reinforcement techniques to good effect is the education of autistic children. Autism occurs in early childhood and has a poor prognosis; medical and cognitive therapies have not proved successful. Behaviour modification is seen to be a way of supporting autistic children and enabling them to make educational and social progress.

In this research Lovaas, , a group of 40 children were ranged based on learning ability; nearly half were considered normal, 10 per cent had severe learning difficulties and the rest had some learning difficulties. There was a control group of 19 autistic children. The participants of the experiment were assigned to one of two groups — the experimental group receiving the behaviour modification experience of clear instruction and reward for appropriate responses, and the control group receiving minimal treatment but acted to determine the rate of spontaneous improvement in children with autism.

The allocation of children to experimental and control groups was based on convenience, but checks were made to ensure that there was not a bias that could affect the results. The behaviours were scored in three ways — self-stimulatory for example, repetitive behaviours , appropriate play and recognisable word utterances. There were double-blind checks on many of these judgements Lovaas et al. The behaviour modification procedures were extensive, being an average of 40 hours per week for 2 or more years.

A detailed presentation of the treatment procedure has been presented in a teaching manual Lovaas et al.


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Various behavioral deficiencies were targeted, and separate programs were designed to accelerate development for each behavior. Lovaas, 5 The results of the experiment are presented statistically with pre-treatment comparisons showing with a high reliability the equivalence of the control and experimental groups.

In the IQ tests and place- ment in the schooling system, at intake, there were no significant differences, but at follow-up, the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group on educational placement and IQ test performance.

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In contrast, the control participants remained virtually unchanged between intake and follow-up, consistent with findings from other studies Freeman et al. This research illustrates the application of behaviourist principles and the rigorous analysis of their impact. Providing models for behaviour The next examples are drawn from current publications and illustrate the diverse areas in which research focusing upon behaviourist approaches takes place.

With each example there is a challenge for the reader to identify how similar principles of practice and theory would apply in their teaching situ- ations, albeit very different. The challenge to teachers is to identify strategies of teaching and imaginatively apply them to their situation. The examples include using video and using virtual reality to promote appropriate learning, dealing with the way pupils behave in class and reflecting upon the behaviour of teachers and the impact upon learning. Adolescents in particular are vulnerable; they are in a time of identity formation and they are very exposed to the media where there is a great deal of attention given to the inappropriate behaviours of celebrities.

The impact of modern technologies means that the slightest indiscretions of the role model are immediately and widely broadcast before the situation can be remediated. These next research examples show how positive role models can have an influence upon the behaviour of the learners. The first study Paterson and Arco, examines the effects of video modelling. The participants of the study were boys with autism; a characteristic of autism is repetitive actions.

The study identified the impact upon the repetitive activities and the development of more appropriate play behaviours. Video modelling produced increases in appropriate play and decreases in repetitive play. Other reports of studies, for example, Rayner, Denholm and Sigafoos , identify a range of affordances of video as the model for learners.


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One study Charlop-Christy, Le and Freeman, showed the efficacy of video was better than that of live modelling and also reflects upon the positive resource costs of video over real experience. Each participant was presented with two similar tasks from his or her curriculum; one task was used for the video condition, while the other was used for the in vivo condition.

Video modelling consisted of each child watching a videotape of models performing the target behaviour, whereas in vivo modelling consisted of the participant observing live models perform the target behaviour. After the observations, children were tested for acquisition and generalisation of the target behaviours. When we consider the practical issues of supporting adolescent learners, we can provide the appropriate situations that give good role models, but we also have to ensure that the adolescents also possess the necessary skills and carry out the appropriate behaviours.

We have to consider how the adolescents identify those appropriate behaviours. We often require our learners to present their ideas to the rest of the class.

Behaviourism 101

It is an important element of learning that the concept can be articulated. Some pupils and many adults find the situation daunting, and the difficulties adults experience is recognised as public speaking anxiety. This next piece of research Wallach, Safir and Bar- Zvi, shows how, by changing the context, the appropriate skills can be developed by the learner, and they can be more readily supported by the mentor or teacher.

The difficulty associated with supporting children with this anxiety is that the context makes the exposition by the learner the focus, and any intervention by the teacher relating to the anxiety would interfere with the flow and content of the exposition. It would also draw to the attention of the other pupils the anxiety of the presenter. The same is true in an adult situation where the public speaking context is not accessible by a mentor and if it was, any intervention might disclose the anxiety issue to the audience.